Der Gesandte Allahs hat gesagt: „Wer auf der Suche nach Wissen hinauszieht, der ist auf dem Wege Allahs, bis er wiederkehrt. (Anas; Tirmidhi)



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Die verschiedenen islamischen Denkschulen enwickelten sich aus der Notwendigkeit heraus, dass es nach dem Ableben des Propheten innerhalb der muslimischen Gemeinschaft keine Autorität mehr gab, die die Fragestellungen des täglichen Lebens aus islamischer Sicht hätte umfassend beantworten können.

Deshalb entwickelten sich historisch gesehen, im Umkreis der Wirkungsstätten berühmter Gelehrter (Ulama), entsprechende Denkschulen (Madhhab), wobei diese zu ihren Lebzeiten nicht die Gründung einer Denkschule vorgesehen hatten.

Die bekanntesten sunnitischen Denkschulen sind:

  • Denkschule nach Imam Abu Hanifa (80 n.H./699 AD – 150 n.H./767 AD)
  • Denkschule nach Imam Malik ibn Anas (95 n.H./713 AD – 179 n.H./795 AD)
  • Denkschule nach Imam Al Shafi´s ibn Mohammad Idris (150 n.H./767 AD – 204 n.H. /820 AD)
  • Denkschule nach Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (167 n.H./780 AD – 241 n.H./855 AD)

Innerhalb der schiitischen Ausrichtung gibt es im wesentlichen die jaafaritische Denkschule nach Imam Jaafar as-Saddiqe, welche auch unter dem Namen der ZwöIfer-Schia bekannt ist. Die ausserdem existierende zaiditische Denkschule hat eher eine untergeordnete Rolle.

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